Permeability of human skin to selected anions and cations--in vitro studies.
Among the many factors influencing the human body every day, metal cations and anions are some of the most important and are constantly present in atmospheric fallout. Some of them such as sulfate or nitrate anions along with different detergents may cause pathological changes within the skin. The aim of this study was to estimate whether sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nitrate anions (NO3-) as well as metal cations, magnesium (Mg2+) and calcium (Ca2+) are able to pass through isolated patches of human skin and to investigate the dynamics of ion diffusion. In vitro, we found human skin to be permeable to magnesium and calcium ions as well as sulfate and nitrate anions at concentrations observed in the atmospheric fallout in two regions having different levels of pollution. Diverse influence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) detergent on the grade of metal ion permeability (acceleration in the first 10 hours of experiment) and anion permeability (lack of SO4(2-) influence) suggest the presence of different routes of ions penetration through the skin. It is also supported by different transportation characteristics of individual ions through the skin over time.
Permeation of topically applied Magnesium ions through human skin
Topical magnesium delivery is one of the oldest forms of therapy for skin diseases, for example Dead Sea therapy and Epsom salt baths. Some anecdotal evidence and a few published reports have attributed amelioration of inflammatory skin conditions to the topical application of magnesium. On the other hand, transport of magnesium ions across the protective barrier of skin, the stratum corneum, is contentious. Our primary aim in this study was to estimate the extent of magnesium ion permeation through human skin and the role of hair follicles in facilitating the permeation. Upon topical application of magnesium solution, we found that magnesium penetrates through human stratum corneum and it depends on concentration and time of exposure. We also found that hair follicles make a significant contribution to magnesium penetration.
In Vitro Permeation of Metals through Human Skin: A Review and Recommendations
This review provides a systematic synopsis focused on an in vitro diffusion cell method utilizing human skin and examines the differences in experimental design as this could influence the results obtained. The permeation of metals such as chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, lead, mercury, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, silver, titanium, and zinc are discussed. The metals included in this review, except for titanium and zinc, can permeate through intact human skin under physiological conditions. On the basis of flux values, the order of permeability could be summarized as Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co > Pt > Hg > Rh (excluding nanoparticles). Permeability of metals through human skin is highly variable with the different methodologies as a contributing factor. Furthermore, metals are retained in the skin which could lead to reservoir (depot) formation and extended exposure even after the removal thereof from the outer surface of the skin.
HIV-TAT mediated protein transduction of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation
Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern during radiotherapy. Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD, SOD1) is a conserved enzyme for scavenging superoxide radical in cells. Because of the integrity of cell membranes, exogenous molecule is not able to be incorporated into cells, which limited the application of natural SOD1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of HIV-TAT protein transduction domain mediated protein transduction of SOD1 (TAT-SOD1) against ionizing radiation. This study provides evidences for the protective role of TAT-SOD1 in alleviating radiation-induced damage in HaCaT cells and rat skins, which suggests a new therapeutic strategy for radiation-induced skin injury.
Conjugation of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase with succinylated gelatin - pharmacological activity and cell-lubricating function
Tissue distribution analysis revealed that intravenously administered Suc-gel-SOD showed a much greater accumulation than native SOD in the liver followed by in decreasing order the kidney, the lung, and the spleen; native SOD was excreted more rapidly into urine before it accumulated in tissues. Furthermore, Suc-gel-SOD exhibited lower antigenicity and immunogenicity than native SOD, and it had a better therapeutic effect against ischemic edema of the foot pad in mice. The conjugate was found to accumulate more than native SOD in the ischemic foot pad. A newly added property of the conjugate is cell-lubricating activity, which facilitated cell passage through micropores and reduced hemolysis during cell passage in vitro.
Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum
The formulation was well tolerated, and efficacy was demonstrated in a number of measured parameters, which are helpful in the symptomatic management of HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions in adult patients. Remarkably, the effects seen from this product came from a single application.
Serum copper and zinc concentrations in patients with burns in relation to burn surface area
Serum zinc and copper concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in 34 patients between 1 and 3 weeks after thermal injury. Postburn hypozincemia was found to be very variable and not associated with either serum albumin concentration or periods of clinical sepsis. Serum copper concentration was inversely correlated with burn surface area. Because major burn injuries are associated with hypocupremia, serial monitoring is recommended with appropriate copper supplementation.
Zinc and copper-replacement therapy - a must in burns and scalds in children
The author describes experiences gained in the zinc and copper serum concentration estimations in burned children. Without added substitution therapy the serum zinc concentration rises by 19.9% and the serum copper concentration by 5.8% in the course of time. If only zinc is substituted the values rises by 83.6% for zinc, but the value for copper decreases by 18.8%. If the serum zinc and copper concentration is low on admission and if both added zinc and copper are given, the concentration for zinc rises by 102.5%, but the concentration of copper only rises by 25% and does not reach normal values. Serum zinc and copper concentration drops to its maximal extent 48 hours after the accident.
Trace element supplementation modulates pulmonary infection rates after major burns: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Infections remain the leading cause of death after major burns. Trace elements are involved in immunity and burn patients suffer acute trace element depletion after injury. In a previous nonrandomized study, trace element supplementation was associated with increased leukocyte counts and shortened hospital stays
Reduction of nosocomial pneumonia after major burns by trace element supplementation: aggregation of two randomised trials.
Nosocomial pneumonia is a major source of morbidity and mortality after severe burns. Burned patients suffer trace element deficiencies and depressed antioxidant and immune defences. This study aimed at determining the effect of trace element supplementation on nosocomial or intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired pneumonia.
Herpes genitalis - Topical zinc sulfate: An alternative therapeutic and modality
Herpes genitalis is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections in the world caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2. All herpes viruses show latency. Herpes genitalis caused by HSV-1 and HSV-2 is recurrent in 55 and 90% of case respectively. Topical ZnSO4 has been found to be an effective therapeutic modality not only for treatment but also for prolonging remissions in herpes genitalis. Topical 4% ZnSO4 has been found to be most efficacious out of the three concentrations, without any side effects.
Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review
Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photo protecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma). Anti Aging Mahoney et al.  evaluated the effects of a bi-metal, 0.1% copper-zinc malonate, containing cream on elastin biosynthesis and elastic tissue accumulation in 21 female patients with photoaged facial skin. After 8 weeks of therapy, significant elastic fiber regeneration was seen in the papillary dermis leading to effacement of wrinkles. The combined photoprotective and elastic regenerative properties of zinc could be used for the development of effective anti aging therapies.
Anti-Aging Activity of copper peptides - The Skin and Beyond
The primary cause of human aging and its attendant diseases are changes in the activity of the human genome. During aging there is an increase in the activity of inflammatory, cancer promoting, and tissue destructive genes plus a decrease in the activity of regenerative and reparative genes. Regenerative copper peptides appear to help maintain wellness and youth. The human peptide GHK induces many health associated actions such as tissue repair, anti-inflammatory actions, anti-cancer effects, anti-infection, stem cell activation, increasing protein P63 and many other biological functions in our bodies.