June 18, 2021

IBAL Components Ammonium Cation

Ammonium Cation


The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3). Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations


The nutritional relationship linking sulfur to nitrogen in living organisms


Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) coexist in the biosphere as free elements or in the form of simple inorganic NO3- and SO4(2-) oxyanions, which must be reduced before undergoing anabolic processes leading to the production of methionine (Met) and other S-containing molecules. Under steady-state conditions, the dietary intake of SO4(2-) is essentially equal to total sulfaturia. The recommended dietary allowances for both S-containing AAs allotted to replace the minimal obligatory losses resulting from endogenous catabolism is largely covered by Western customary diets. By contrast, strict vegans and low-income populations living in plant-eating countries incur the risk of chronic N and Met dietary deficiencies causing undesirable hyperhomocysteinemia best explained by the downsizing of their TBN resources and documented by declining TTR plasma values.


The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+4


The ammonium cation is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3). Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations (NR+4), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups (indicated by R).


Reactive molecule species and antioxidative mechanisms in normal skin and skin aging


Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) which may exist as radicals or non radicals, as well as reactive sulfur species and reactive carbon species, play a major role in aging processes and in carcinogenesis. These reactive molecule species (RMS), often referred to as 'free radicals' or oxidants, are partly by-products of the physiological metabolism. When RMS concentrations exceed a certain threshold, cell compartments and cells are injured and destroyed. Recent research, however, has revealed that RMS and in particular ROS/RNS are apparently also produced by specific enzyme reactions in an evolutionarily adapted manner. They may fulfill important physiologic functions such as the activation of specific signaling chains in the cell metabolism, defense against infectious pathogens, and regulation of the immune system.


Antimicrobial activity of a quaternary ammonium methacryloxy silicate-containing acrylic resin: a randomised clinical trial.


Two control QAMS-free acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on one side of an orthodontic retainer, and two experimental QAMS-containing acrylic disks were inserted into the wells on the other side of the same retainer. In the absence of carry-across effect and allocation bias (disks inserted in the left or right side of retainer), significant difference was identified between the percentage kill in the biovolume of QAMS-free control disks (3.73 ± 2.11%) and QAMS-containing experimental disks (33.94 ± 23.88%) retrieved from the subjects (P ≤ 0.001). The results validated that the QAMS-containing acrylic exhibits favourable antimicrobial activity against plaque biofilms in vivo.


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination in bedside surfaces of a hospital ward and the potential effectiveness of enhanced disinfection with an antimicrobial polymer surfactant.


The contamination rate dropped significantly from 78% to 11% after the application of the QAC polymer. In the experimental group, the mean staphylococcal concentration of bedside surfaces was significantly (p<0.0001) reduced from 4.4±8.7 cfu/cm2 at 08:00 hours to 0.07±0.26 cfu/cm2 at 12:00 hours by the QAC polymer. The results of this study support the view that, in addition to hypochlorite wiping, the tested QAC surfactant is a potential environmental decontamination strategy for preventing the transmission of clinically important pathogens in medical wards.


NH3 - Center for Molecular Imaging Innovation & Translation


In vivo, NH3 is in the form of ammonium ion. After IV injection it is extracted from the capillaries through the ammonia transporter. Once in cells, it is converted to glutamine and can diffuse out of the cell or be metabolized to glutamate and retained within the cell. Targets all viable tissue that has blood flow but the clinical target is myocardial perfusion. 


Reduced intravascular catheter infection by antibiotic bonding. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial.


Fourteen percent of the 81 catheters in the control group were infected, compared with 2% of the 97 antibiotic-bonded catheters. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common organism obtained. There was no significant difference in the number of colonized or clinically inflamed catheter insertion sites. None of the 100 antibiotic immersion solutions yielded anything on microbiologic culture. We conclude that antibiotic bonding is an efficient, safe, and cost-effective method of reducing intravascular catheter infection in patients who are in intensive care units.


Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer


Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The "two-faced" character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species.

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